IELTS Insights – Writing and Speaking – Paraphrasing!!!

?IELTS Insights: Để Paraphrase nhanh chóng và chính xác, không nhất thiết phải có nhiều từ vựng!?

Nếu đang nghiên cứu IELTS , có lẽ em hiểu được tầm quan trong của Paraphrasing. Đối với những bạn chưa rõ, thầy xin giải thích đơn giản khái niệm Paraphrasing nhé. Paraphrasing là việc nêu lại ý của một từ, cụm từ, đoạn văn mà dùng cách diễn đạt khác. Lý do Paraphrasing quan trọng trong IELTS là vì bài test này sẽ dùng Paraphrasing để đánh giá khả năng tiếng Anh của em trong cả bốn kỹ năng Listening Reading Writing và Speaking.

Hiểu được tầm quan trọng của Paraphrasing, nhiều bạn IELTS ý thức rằng mình phải paraphrase để đạt điểm cao. Tuy nhiên, có một quan niệm chưa đúng mà nhiều học viên mắc phải là khi paraphrase. Đó là gắn liền khái niệm paraphrasing với việc phải dùng synonyms. Điều này dẫn đến việc gặp nhiều khó khăn hay thậm chí sai/ lạc đề.

Em hãy gạt bỏ thói quen này để việc paraphrase của mình dễ dàng và chính xác hơn.

Thực ra, khi paraphrase, em không nhất thiết phải dùng synonyms. Em có thể chỉ cần thay đổi cấu trúc câu một tí. Miễn sao truyền đạt cùng một ý để không sai ý/ lạc đề là được.

? Ví dụ, trong quyển IELTS Cambridge Practice Tests 4 có một đề IELTS Writing Task 1 như sau, ‘the chart below shows the different levels of post-school qualifications in Australia and the proportion of men and women who held them in 1999’.

Trong bài này, hầu như khi nào thầy dạy cũng có nhiều học viên chọn paraphrase 2 cụm từ.

• ‘post-school qualifications’ => ‘post-school certificates’

• ‘the proportion of men and women who held them’ => ‘the proportion of men and women who got them’.

Như em thấy, hai cụm trên được paraphrased chỉ dựa vào synonyms (qualifications => certificates)(held => got). Tuy nhiên, nếu phân tích kỹ em sẽ thấy không ổn.

• Trong ví dụ đầu, ‘qualifications’ là bằng cấp nói chung. Nó bao gồm cả bằng đại học cao đẳng và sau đại học. Mặt khác, ‘certificates’ là chứng chỉ (như chứng chỉ IELTS); hai điều này khác nhau về ý nghĩa.

• Trong ví dụ sau, ‘held’ là có những cái bằng đó, ‘got’ là nhận được những cái bằng đó; hai điều này cũng khác nhau. Vì, người ta có bằng đó vào 1999 không có nghĩa người ta nhận chúng vào 1999. Có thể họ đã nhận được trước đó.

? Vậy để paraphrase hai cụm trên em có thể không cần tìm synonyms đâu. Em chỉ thay đổi cấu trúc câu một tí để đảm bảo không thay đổi ý nghĩa của chúng là được.

Ví dụ,

• ‘post-school qualifications’ => ‘qualifications after school education’

• ‘the proportion of men and women who held them’ => ‘the proportion of men and women holding them’. (hoặc em thay held bằng had, holding bằng having cũng được)

Vậy, em đừng chỉ cố gắng tìm synonyms khi paraphrasing nữa vì nó có thể dẫn đến sai/ lạc đề. Ngoài cách đó, em hãy nghĩ đến việc thay đổi cấu trúc câu văn của mình. Điều này có thể đảm bảo paraphrase nhẹ nhàng, nhanh chóng và chính xác hơn nhé.

Chúc em học tốt! 

July 8, 2018

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